1. Automobile Accidents
2. PTSD and Anxiety
3. Digital Mind Change - S. Greenfield
4. Cranio Sacral System - J. Rollinson

Recovery from Automobile and other Accidents

       If you have ever been in a car accident, you know that the sense of relief that no one was seriously hurt feels about as good as it gets.  Many people are surprised, however, when one day, two days, even up to a week later, they are all of a sudden sore, stiff, aching and out of sorts!  This is due to the body’s self-protective mechanisms, which keep you functional, and sometimes pumped with adrenaline, in case you still need to get yourself or your family out of danger.
       Motor vehicle accidents cause all kinds of injuries, the most troubling of which is concussion.  Post concussive syndrome is the disorientation, lack of focus, headaches, fatigue and lessened mental faculties resulting from a bruise of the brain.  That is what all concussions are, a bruising of neural tissue.  There is a wide range, but it is almost always recommended to get some kind of support or treatment for even a mild concussion.  (The most serious type involves actual bleeding within the cranium, called a subdural bleed or hematoma, and if you have blurred vision, oversensitivity to light, can’t stand or remember basic facts or really any concerning symptoms, you need to go directly to the hospital as this is life-threatening.) 
       Other common MVA injuries are:  whiplash, which is usually several mild to moderate ligament or muscle pulls in the neck.  Low back or lumbar strain, which involves pain and stiffness in the lower back, even if you don’t remember hurting it.  Joint injuries, such as sore shoulders or hips. 
       Cranio Sacral Therapy is highly recommended for automobile accident recovery.  Often even a few treatments will shorten the recovery and rehabilitation time significantly.  The first thing Craniosacral work does is to take the edge off the body’s internal trauma response.  Whenever we experience a trauma, many things happen with the nervous and endocrine systems.  The survival centers in the brain-stem assume there is a danger to your life, and they activate the “fight or flight” response.  Adrenaline and other hormones flood the system, the nerves go on high alert, and our energy and focus shift instantly out into the periphery.  (The body perceives all threats as part of the environment, and directs our resources to unite with our peripheral environment, in an attempt to control it, and so keep us safe.)  This is why we feel numb after a car accident, sometimes even for days! 
       Our first order of business is to assist the body to complete the process of re-setting your fight or flight response.  Now that the accident or trauma is over, a “sympathetic” state of the nervous system is counterproductive.  It just causes more stress and slows healing.  If you feel nervous, numb, edgy, have trouble concentrating, you are irritable or just plain out of sorts, your nervous system has not yet returned to a “parasympathetic” state.  In a perfect world, this reset happens within a few hours, but few people are so lucky.

Some things you can do right away:

  1. Take an Epsom salts bath.Dissolve 2 cups Epsom salts in a hot bath and soak for half an hour.  This will often help alleviate or prevent some of the soreness, until you can get in for a therapeutic treatment.

  2. Take it easy.  Do not resume your regular exercise routine for at least 3 days, or you could make it worse, and slow the healing process.  Your body needs all its resources.

  3. Take a day off from work if you can.  The time allows your body to begin regrouping its forces and sets the stage for a healing process, rather than a make-due process.

  4. Arnica is an herb which has demonstrated effectiveness supporting the recovery from bruising, strain and shocks of all kinds.  It is non-prescription.  Use whatever you have at hand, creams (“Traumeel” is a brand which has other helpful ingredients as well) or homeopathic drops or pellets.  If you have a choice, take 6X or something close to that.

       Cranio Sacral treatment follows a de-stressing and calming of the patient with attention to concussions and then the musculoskeletal system.  Contusions, pulled muscles and strained joints respond well to the gentle approach, where we release tension and kinetic energy from impact and restore range of motion.  Important: healing is slowed in an environment of stress, tension or emotional distress.
       Concussions require a somewhat longer time for complete recovery; because there is no known conventional treatment which actually speeds the healing of post concussive symptoms, we can only prevent further injury or lessen symptoms.  Many people have shown significant improvement while receiving craniosacral work, and most return to a better level of mental clarity within a week or two.
       Interestingly, a car or motor vehicle accident often brings up older injuries or traumas, as if the body in its wisdom takes the opportunity to complete a healing process for an older event for which we originally did not have the resources.  Countless times, because of this, after going through recovery in this careful and attentive way, you end up better than you were to start with.       – John Rollinson

When seeing patients in my Northampton, Massachusetts office, I make every effort to fit you in right away if you have been in an MVA, (motor vehicle accident), and to expedite approval from your insurance company.  After any car accident, It is important for you to take your recovery process in hand, whatever path you choose.

Hampshire County, Western Mass.

Cranio Sacral Therapy and PTSD  

Stress, Emotional Trauma, Anxiety, Depression
CranioSacral Therapy is well known as an effective and safe therapeutic support for individuals who have passed through traumatic experiences, and has been helpful to combat veterans, survivors of abuse or in working through the “invisible trauma” of childhood.  CST works to heal us in our PTSD or ongoing stress by allowing the body and central nervous system to change their ingrained emotional patterns.
If you have symptoms you feel are related to ongoing emotional stress or previous emotional trauma, CST and SER may help you to significantly lighten the load you are carrying.  Anxiety and Depression-like symptoms are often the result of emotional “energy” trapped in the human nervous system.  Normally, the body dissipates emotional trauma soon after the event.  If we do not have the resources to initiate our dissipating mechanisms, it is still possible at a later date to facilitate this process and help our central nervous system to release, integrate and heal.
Following a study of 38 Tibetan refugees suffering from PTSD, Naturopath Dr. Lisa Chavez explains:  “I think this therapy works so well for body mind conditions because it induces the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system, or as it is commonly called the 'rest and digest' state.  This allows the entire body to enter a state of restoration, unlike psychoactive drugs that just dampen the sympathetic response."1
She found that ‘survey scores for anxiety and somatic complaints of the participants who received the Craniosacral Therapy decreased, while the somatic complaint scores of the participants who did not receive therapy actually increased.  "The decrease in somatic, anxiety and total scores of the treatment group was statistically significant…”’2
Key in Chavez’ assessment is the idea that for deep and lasting healing from post traumatic stress or stress disorder, it is not enough to “dampen the sympathetic response” (the body’s anxiety/survival response).  What we really want is to strengthen the body and indeed the whole person, reconnecting them to their core and facilitating a processing and release of trauma and trauma patterns within the emotional consciousness and the nervous system.  This ultimately brings us into a “parasympathetic” state, where we are no longer looking around every corner for the next stressor, but calmly centered at home, in ourselves.
These processes: of realigning with our selves, and shedding stress, must generally go hand in hand.  As we feel less urgency, we can come back to our center.  As we feel our selves strong, stress falls away.       -John Rollinson

1 http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090821/PSTD-could-be-treated-with-Craniosacral-therapy-according-to-a-research-study.aspx#
2 http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090821/PSTD-could-be-treated-with-Craniosacral-therapy-according-to-a-research-study.aspx#

I work with all levels of PTSD in my office in Northampton, MA including both acute and chronic types.  And, one should not imagine that one has to pass through war and famine to struggle with stress levels which are beyond an appropriate response from the body.  Our modern human condition makes our emotional and mental digesting of stressful events (and thoughts) a complex inner process which is usually confusing and frustrating.  Take heart, there are a lot of us out here who are able to offer support.

Susan Greenfield: “Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains”

Susan Greenfield, neuroscientist, senior research fellow at Oxford University and a member of the House of Lords.
Excerpted from Mind Change by Susan Greenfield.  Copyright © 2015 by Susan Greenfield.  Reprinted here by permission of the author.

Let’s enter a world unimaginable even a few decades ago, one like no other in human history. It’s a two-dimensional world of only sight and sound, offering instant information, connected identity, and the opportunity for here-and-now experiences so vivid and mesmerizing that they can outcompete the dreary reality around us. It’s a world teeming with so many facts and opinions that there will never be enough time to evaluate and understand even the smallest fraction of them. For an increasing number of its inhabitants, this virtual world can seem more immediate and significant than the smelly, tasty, touchy 3-D counterpart: it’s a place of nagging anxiety or triumphant exhilaration as you are swept along in a social networking swirl of collective consciousness. It’s a parallel world where you can be on the move in the real world, yet always hooked into an alternative time and place. The subsequent transformation of how we might all be living very soon is a vitally important issue, perhaps even the most important issue of our time. Why? Because it may be that a daily existence revolving around smartphone, iPad, laptop, and Xbox is radically changing not just our everyday lifestyles but also our identities and even our inner thoughts in unprecedented ways.2 As a neuroscientist, I’m fascinated by the potential effects of a screen-oriented daily existence on how we think and what we feel, and I want to explore how that exquisitely adaptable organ, the brain, may now be reacting to this novel environment, recently dubbed the “digital wildfire”3.

In the developed world, there is now a one in three chance that children will live to 100 years of age.4 Thanks to the advances of biomedicine, we can anticipate longer and healthier lives; thanks to technology, we can foresee an existence increasingly freed from the daily domestic grind that characterized the lives of previous generations. Unlike so much of humanity in the past and still in many nightmare scenarios around the world, we take it as the norm and as our entitlement not to be hungry, cold, in pain, or in constant fear for our lives. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are many in our society who are convinced that we’re doing just fine, that these digital technologies are not so much a raging wildfire but more of a welcoming hearth at the heart of our current lifestyles. Accordingly, various reassuring arguments are ready at hand to counter reservations and concerns that might otherwise be viewed as exaggerated, even hysterical. 

One starting premise is that surely everyone has enough common sense to ensure that we don’t let the new cyber-culture hi-jack daily life wholesale. Surely we are sensible and responsible enough to self-regulate how much time we spend online and to ensure that our children don’t become completely obsessed by the screen. But the argument that we are automatically rational beings does not stand the test of history: when has common sense ever automatically prevailed over easy, profitable, or enjoyable possibilities? Just look at the persistence of hundreds of millions worldwide who still spend money on a habit that caused a hundred million fatalities in the twentieth century and which, if present trends continue, promises up to one billion deaths in this century: smoking.5 Not much common sense at work there.

Then again, the reliability of human nature might work in our favor if only we could assume that our innate genetic makeup leads most of us to do the right thing, regardless of any corrupting external influences. Yet in itself, this idea immediately runs counter to the superlative adaptability of the human brain, which allows us to occupy more ecological niches than any other species on the planet. The Internet was initially created as a way for scientists to contact each other, and this invention spawned phenomena such as 4chan, a collection of message boards where people post images and short text comments, mostly anonymously and with no holds barred. This form of self-expression is a new niche to which we may adapt, with consequences as extreme as the medium itself. If it is the hallmark of our species to thrive wherever we find ourselves, then the digital technologies could bring out the worst in human nature rather than being rendered harmless by it. 

Another way of dismissing out of hand the concerns that the effects of digital technology may bring is a kind of solipsistic stance in which the screen enthusiast proudly points to his or her own perfectly balanced existence, which combines the pleasures and advantages of cyber-culture with life in three dimensions. Yet psychologists have been telling us for many years that such subjective introspection is an unreliable barometer of mental state. In any case, it should be obvious enough that just because a single individual may be able to achieve an ideal mix between the virtual and the real, it does not automatically mean that others are capable of exercising similar restraint and sound judgment. And even those individuals who think they’ve got everything just right will often admit in an unguarded moment that “It’s easy to waste a lot of time on Facebook,” that they are “addicted” to Twitter, or that, yes, they do find it hard to concentrate long enough to read a whole newspaper article. In the United Kingdom, the advent of I, an abbreviated version of the national quality paper The Independent, and the introduction on the BBC of the 90 Second News Update stand as testimony to the demands of an ever larger constituency of readers and viewers — not just the younger generation — who have a reduced attention span and are demanding print and broadcast media to match. 

Another consolation is the conviction that the next generation will work out just fine, thanks to parents who take control and intervene where necessary. Sadly, this idea has already proved to be a nonstarter. For reasons we shall explore shortly, parents often complain that they cannot control what their offspring do online, and many already despair at their inability to prize their children away from the screen and back into a world of three dimensions. 

Marc Prensky, an American technologist, coined the term “Digital Native” for someone defined by his or her perceived outlook and abilities, based on an automatic facility and familiarity with digital technologies.8 By contrast, “Digital Immigrants” are those of us who, according to Prensky, “have adopted many aspects of the technology, but just like those who learn another language later in life, retain an accent because we still have one foot in the past.” It is unlikely that anyone reading these words will not have strong views as to which side of the divide he or she belongs and whether the distinction is cause for unalloyed celebration or deep anxiety. Generally speaking, it corresponds to age, although Prensky himself did not pinpoint a specific line of demarcation. The date of birth of the Digital Native seems therefore to be uncertain: we could start as far back as the 1960s, when the term “computer ” entered into common parlance, or as late as 1990, for by the time a young Digital Native born then could read and write, email (which started around 1993) would have become an inescapable part of life. 
The important distinction is that Digital Natives know no other way of life other than the culture of Internet, laptop, and mobile. They can be freed from the constraints of local mores and hierarchical authority and, as autonomous citizens of the world, will personalize screen-based activities and services while collaborating with, and contributing to, global social networks and information sources. 

But a much gloomier portrait of the Digital Native is being painted by pundits such as the British American author Andrew Keen: 
MySpace and Facebook are creating a youth culture of digital narcissism; open-source knowledge sharing sites like Wikipedia are undermining the authority of teachers in the classroom; the YouTube generation are more interested in self-expression than in learning about the world; the cacophony of anonymous blogs and user-generated content is deafening today’s youth to the voices of informed experts.9 

Then again, perhaps the Digital Native doesn’t actually exist after all. Neil Selwyn, of the Institute of Education in London, argues that the current generation is actually no different from preceding ones: young people are not hardwired to have unprecedented brains. Rather, many young people are using technology in a far more sporadic, passive, solitary, and, above all, unspectacular way than the hype of the blogosphere and zealous proponents of cyber-culture might have us believe. 

Irrespective of whether the digital age has spawned a new type of super-being or just ordinary humans better adapted to screen life, suffice it to say that, for the moment, parents are most likely to be Digital Immigrants and their children Digital Natives. The former are still learning the enormous potential of these technologies in adulthood, while the latter have known nothing else. This cultural divide often makes it hard for parents to know how best to approach situations that they intuitively perceive to be a problem, such as seemingly excessive time spent on computer-based activities; meanwhile, children may feel misunderstood and impatient with views they regard as inappropriate and outdated for present-day life.

Although reports and surveys have focused largely on the next generation, the concerns I want to flag are not limited to the Digital Native alone. Far from it. But a generational divide has undoubtedly arisen from the vertiginous increase in the pace of ever smarter digital devices and applications. What will be the effects on each generation, and on the relationship between them? 

In a 2011 report, Virtual Lives, researchers for the U.K. children’s charity Kidscape assessed the online activities of more than two thousand children between the ages of eleven and eighteen. Just under half of the children questioned said they behaved differently online compared to their normal lives, with many claiming it made them feel more powerful and confident. One explained: “It’s easier to be who you want to be, because nobody knows you and if you don’t like the situation you can just exit and it is over.” Another echoed this sentiment, noting: “You can say anything online. You can talk to people that you don’t normally speak to and you can edit your pictures so you look better. It is as if you are a completely different person.” These findings, the report argues, “suggest that children see cyberspace as detachable from the real world and as a place where they can explore parts of their behavior and personality that they possibly would not show in real life. They seem unable to understand that actions online can have repercussions in the real world.”11 The easy opportunity of alternative identity and the notion that actions don’t have consequences have never previously featured in a child’s development, and they are posing unprecedented questions as to what might be for the best. While the brain is indeed not hardwired to interface effectively with screen technologies, it has evolved to respond with exquisite sensitivity to external influences — to the environment it inhabits. And the digital environment is getting ever more pervasive at an ever younger age. Recently Fischer-Price introduced a potty-training seat complete with an iPad holder,12 presumably to complement an infant life-style where the recliner in which the baby may spend many hours is also dominated by a screen.

This is why the question of the impact of digital technologies is so very important. Hardened captains of industry or slick entrepreneurs will often sidle up to me during the coffee break at corporate events and let their professional mask slip as they recount in despair the obsessional fixation of their teenage son or daughter with the computer. But these anxieties remain unchanneled and unfocused. Where can these troubled parents share their experiences with others on a wider platform and articulate them in a formal and cogent way? At the moment, nowhere. In the following pages, we’ll be looking at many studies on preteens as well as teenagers; unfortunately, there are far fewer studies on adults, perhaps because they are less cohesive and identifiable as a group than a volunteer student body or a captive classroom. But, in any event, it’s important to view the data not as a self-help guide for bringing up kids but rather as a pivotal factor in the bigger picture of society as a whole. 

The Pressurestat Model of the CranioSacral System

published in Massage Today Vol 8. Issue 11.    http://www.massagetoday.com/mpacms/mt/article.php?id=13894
by John Rollinson, D.Eu, CST

The Pressurestat Model describes the inflow, circulation and outflow of cerebrospinal fluid in the semi-closed hydraulic system of the craniosacral system. It is an explanation for the palpable, rhythmic expansion and contraction of the boundary of the craniosacral system which we know as the craniosacral rhythm.

The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, which transports nutrients, hormones and peptides of all kinds; removes metabolic waste products and toxic substances from brain tissue; serves as a shock absorber in jolts to the head; floats the brain, thus counteracting the forces of gravity; and influences respiration and cerebral blood flow through its pH, to name some of its known functions. In fact, "because of its singular and continuous fluid system, in order to bathe the neurons and glial cells of the brain, it is essential that cerebrospinal fluid flow not be impaired. If an area of brain tissue is even partially deprived of optimally effective cerebrospinal fluid motion and flow, that brain area will be forced into some degree of functional compromise." i.

The cerebrospinal fluid is held within the dural membrane, a tough (hence "dura"-ble) and watertight sack which takes, for the most part, the shape of the interior of the cranium and intervertebral canal. Though the dura mater does not stretch much, it is flexible and allows for changes in pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid-container-system. If pressure increases, the container-membrane expands and the bones of the cranium plus the sacrum move along with it. The reverse occurs when pressure decreases. It is thus that the craniosacral rhythm can be readily palpated at any of these bones; the alternation between increase and decrease in pressure occurs rhythmically.

The filling of the craniosacral system is known a flexion, and the emptying of the same as extension. (Sutherland’s terms) The craniosacral system proceeds through cyclical flexion and extension at a rate of approximately 6 – 12 cycles per minute under normal circumstances. Flexion is an extreme range of motion during which the head becomes wider transversely and shorter in its anterior-posterior dimension. During flexion, the whole body externally rotates and widens. After flexion, this motion passes through a neutral zone on its way into extension, during which the head narrows and elongates, the whole body internally rotating.

It is believed that the reason we can feel the rhythm elsewhere on the body, in fact anywhere, is that "this whole-body response is probably due to the pumping effect of the cerebrospinal fluid upon the motor system, (increase or decrease of cerebrospinal fluid pressure upon the brain) which causes a rhythmical tonification and detonification of the myofascial system in response to rhythmically fluctuating nerve signals." ii.

So, we have a hydraulic system. In order for it to be "semi closed", we must now describe how cerebrospinal fluid enters and leaves the system. In the ventricles of the brain, but chiefly in the lateral cerebral ventricles is found a capillary network called the choroid plexus which produces cerebrospinal fluid by filtration and secretion. The choroid plexus is a projection of the arachnoid mater into the cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricles. Blood circulating through the choroid plexus is "turned into" cerebrospinal fluid and enters the craniosacral system.

The choroid plexus has stretch and compression sensing receptors within the Saggital suture of the cranium, connected to it by nerve tracts running through the falx cerebri. As cerebrospinal fluid is added to the system and its volume increases, the dural container expands, spreading the bones of the head. The parietal bones move apart, spreading the saggital suture, from whence the neuromechanism signals the choroid plexus to stop or greatly reduce the production of cerebrospinal fluid. As the cerebrospinal fluid drains from the system (see below), the dura and the cranium along with it shrink again and the parietals come together, compressing the saggital suture. The pressure sensing nerve endings connected to the choroid plexus send a signal to resume production of cerebrospinal fluid, and the cycle repeats. Normally, the system seems to operate on a cycle of about six seconds – cerebrospinal fluid is produced for about three seconds and then production ceases for about three seconds. This creates the rhythmical rise and fall of fluid pressure within the system.

From the lateral ventricles the cerebrospinal fluid enters the 3rd ventricle via the foramina of Monro, then the 4th via the cerebral aquaduct. It then enters the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord via the foramina of Luschka and of Magendie and joins the cerebrospinal fluid already bathing the brain and spinal cord; bathing all neural tissue enclosed by the dura mater. Fluid then circulates down and around the spinal cord and up and around the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid passes out of the semi-closed hydraulic system via folds, called arachnoid granulation bodies or arachnoid villae, of the arachnoid layer of the cranial meninges which project through the inner layer of dura mater into the venous sinuses of the brain. iii. Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into the venous blood through these arachnoid villae, which are found mostly in the saggital venous sinous. The rate of reabsorption is fairly constant, but seems nevertheless to be regulated (as the idle of your car) by a cluster of arachnoid granulation bodies found at the anterior end of the straight sinus. From this position at the crossroads, so to speak, of the intracranial membranes this cluster is aware of any tension within this membrane system and may regulate the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid accordingly.

To summarize, the craniosacral system is like a leaking toilet with the tank cracked into pieces and lined with a giant exam glove (the Dural membrane). The float-switch in the toilet tank is the saggital suture, which causes an inflow whenever enough water/CSF leaks away down the drain (sinuses).

The craniosacral system is intimately related to, influences and is influenced by:

  1. The nervous system
  2. The musculoskeletal system
  3. The vascular system
  4. The lymphatic system
  5. The endocrine system
  6. The respiratory system

Abnormalities in the structure or function of any of these systems may influence the craniosacral system. Abnormalities in the structure or function of the cranio sacral system will necessarily have profound, and frequently deleterious effects upon the development or function of the nervous system, especially the brain. iv.

There are also ways in which the craniosacral system may have a direct influence on important, ongoing physiological processes. For example, the continuing rhythmical movement of the craniosacral system may serve to "milk" the pituitary gland, with all the implications this would hold for the neuroendocrine system. It is also possible that this rhythmic motion is also an important stimulus for the development of the brain. Similarly, the motion around the skull sutures may pump the newly formed red blood cells out of the flat bones of the skull and into the general circulation. v.

Of course, any abnormality of the craniosacral rhythm, whatever its cause, may have an effect upon the body or any part of it via the central nervous system; any deficiency in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid may affect brain and nervous functioning, any restriction of nerves passing out of the craniosacral system due to restrictions in cranial sutures or membranes may affect their end organs. The same sutural restrictions may affect blood flow into the cranial vault, in turn impinging on brain function. Malfunction within the pessurestat model itself, such as hydrocephaly, where the fluid cannot escape quickly enough, obviously has drastic effects upon the body.

The anatomical components of the craniosacral system are:

  1. The meningeal membranes
  2. The osseous structures to which the meningeal membranes attach
  3. The other non-osseous connective tissue structures which are intimately related to meningeal membranes
  4. The cerebrospinal fluid
  5. All structures related to production, resorption and containment of the cerebrospinal fluid
The meningeal membrane and its contents form the hydraulic system. This membrane is composed of: The pia mater, which faithfully follows the contours of the brain and spinal cord and contains a vascular network. External to that, the arachnoid mater, internal to which is the subarachnoid space, in which circulates the cerebrospinal fluid and external to which is the subdural space. The two fluid filled spaces allow some independent movement of the three membranes. External to that, the dura mater, which is fused with the internal aspect of the skull. Its inner layer forms vertical sheets, the falx cerebri and cerebelli, which separate the hemispheres of the cerebrum and cerebellum respectively. It also forms the horizontal tentorium cerebelli, bilaterally, which separate the cerebellum from the cerebrum. At the foramen magnum the outer dura becomes the endosteum of the vertebral canal and the inner dura becomes the dural tube and extends from its attachment at the foramen magnum (it is also said to attach to the posterior bodies of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebra, however we were unable to find these attachments in our CS Dissection class and it is postulated that they could be a result of the embalming process) into the sacrum. At the level of the 2nd sacral segment it again attaches firmly and then, blending with the other layers, exits at the sacral hiatus at S4 to become the periosteum of the coccyx. It is via these bony attachments that tensions can be transmitted from the extraCSS connective tissues into the dural membrane system and vice versa. As the spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal, they are covered by extensions of the dural sheath (as are the optic nerves) which blends into the paravertebral fascia. All that enjoys enclosure within the dura mater belongs to the cranio sacral system.

i. John Upledger, "Cerebrospinal fluid: what it is and where to find it", 1998 by The Upledger Institute
ii. Ibid
iii. Tabor's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 2001 by F.A. Davis Co
iv. John Upledger, Craniosacral Therapy, 1983 by Eastland Press
v. John Upledger, Craniosacral Therapy-2, 1987 by Eastland Press